The first independent report into the UK Hajj industry reveals a sector that is rapidly expanding and changing – and becoming increasingly expensive for British Muslims.
Written in partnership with the Council of British Hajjis, the University of Leeds report recommends measures to protect pilgrims from conflicting information – including about Hajj travel and Saudi visa guidance – and a UK industry kitemark.
Hajj is the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Islam’s holiest city, and a mandatory religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey.
Those performing the pilgrimage pay an average of £4,000 for an economy Hajj package to Saudi Arabia – an increase of 25% in the last five years.
Costs are exacerbated by the current weakness of the pound and a new tax regime in Saudi Arabia, as well as simple supply and demand for flights as more than two million Muslims worldwide travel during a single week in the year. Hajj also currently coincides with the main northern hemisphere summer holiday period.
There is an increased demand too for accommodation due to the demolition of older, cheaper Mecca hotels in favour of mostly five-star hotels.
With the numbers of British Muslims travelling for Hajj rising from just 573 in 1969 to about 25,000 in recent years, the report – Mapping the UK’s Hajj Sector: Moving Towards Communication and Consensus – examines the sector’s transformation over the last three decades.
Report author Seán McLoughlin, Professor of the Anthropology of Islam in the School of Philosophy, Religion and the History of Science at Leeds, said: “The rising costs are a genuine concern for Muslims on lower incomes but demand for Hajj is strong among all age-groups.
“While Muslims have always in theory been required to make one Hajj pilgrimage in their lifetime, until the jet age few beyond the Arab world had the expectation of doing so.
“Hajj has also become more commercial and with the UK not subject to the national quotas set for Islamic countries, many British Muslims have the desire, income and opportunity to repeat the journey.”
Saudi Arabia made it compulsory for Muslims in the West to buy Hajj packages from licensed private organisers over a decade ago, and the UK government has long since called for better industry compliance and self-regulation. An important recent development has been the establishing of a viable national trade association, Licensed Hajj Organisers.
“Changes that took place in the 2000s acknowledged that British Muslims were exposed to fraudulent operators,” Professor McLoughlin continued, “but more still needs to be done to clarify for pilgrims that while any travel agent can legally sell a Hajj package in the UK, only 117 Saudi-licensed organisers have access to the visas necessary to ensure that pilgrims are not disappointed at this important moment in their lives.”